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Discovering the re-emergence and reassessment of science fiction in the US

Science fiction has emerged as acceptable in the literary canon, with a wide selection of science fiction writers being worth studying. At least it was one of the facts I learned about a genre that I have long associated with popular thrillers when we discussed contemporary American literature in the US about a year ago.

Science fiction is a broad genre of fiction, often involving speculation about current or future science or technology, usually in books, art, television, movies, games, theater, and other media. In the era of television, computers and other technologies, the fascination of contemporary fiction writers with technology has become an extension of the socialist realism sphere for the search of writers.

Science fiction is similar to fantasy. But it differs from him in that its imaginary elements are largely possible under the scientifically postulated laws of nature, although some elements may still be pure imaginary speculation.

Science fiction, then, is largely about writing in a playful and rational way about alternative possibilities in settings that contradict known reality, including:

o Environment in the future, in alternate timelines or in the historical past that conflicts with known historical facts or archaeological records

o A place in space, other worlds or involving aliens.

o Stories contrary to known or alleged laws of nature.

o Stories that involve discovering or applying new scientific principles, such as time travel or psychedelics

o Stories about the discovery or application of a new technology such as nanotechnology, faster-than-light travel or robots,

o Stories that involve the discovery or application of new and different political or social systems

Science fiction also includes imaginative extrapolations of contemporary phenomena such as the deliberate projection of contemporary medical practices such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and artificial insemination, or evolving social changes such as the rise of the suburbs and the growing imbalance between rich and poor.

Science fiction has an ever wider range of thematic possibilities and forms. It covers many other subspecies and themes.

Science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein defines it as “realistic speculation about possible future events, solidly based on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a deep understanding of the nature and importance of the scientific method.” For Rod Serlin, while “fantasy is impossible becomes probable, science fiction is improbability made possible.” So there are no easy boundaries for science fiction. Even a devoted fan has a hard time explaining what it is.

Tough science fiction, attaches rigorous importance to exact details in quantitative science, making many accurate predictions for the future but with numerous inaccurate predictions emerging from the late Arthur C. Clarke, who accurately predicted geostationary communications satellites but mistakenly predicted deep dust layers lunar in lunar craters.

“Soft” science fiction, its opposite, describes works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology and anthropology by Ursula K. Le Guin and Philip K. Dick. and her stories focused primarily on character and emotions; Ray Bradbury is a recognized champion.

Some writers blur the line between them. For example, Mack Reynolds’ work focuses on politics, but anticipates many changes to computers, including cyberterrorism.

The Cyberpunk genre, which is a fusion of “cybernetics” and “punk”, appeared in the early 1980s. “First used by Bruce Bethke in his 1980 story” Cyberpunk “, its timeframe is usually the near future and its settings are often.His common themes include advances in information technology, especially the Internet (visually abstract as cyberspace (possibly malicious), artificial intelligence, mind and body improvements through bionic prosthetics and direct brain-computer interfaces called cyberware, and post-democratic control wherever corporations have more influence than governments Nihilism, postmodernism and film noir techniques are common elements His characters may be disheartened or reluctant to anti-heroes 1982 film Blade Runner is the definitive example of his visual style, with notable authors of the genre such as William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, and Rudy Rucker.

Science fiction authors and filmmakers draw from a wide range of ideas. Many works overlap with two or more commonly defined genres, while others go beyond general boundaries, being outside or between categories. The categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism vary widely.

Time travel stories popularized by the novel by H. G. Wells Time machine with predecessors in the 18th and 19th centuries are popular in novels, television series ( Doctor Who), as single episodes within more general science fiction series (“City on the Edge of Eternity” in Star Trek, “Babylon squared” v Babylon 5and “The Banks of the Lethe” in Andromeda ) and as one-off productions, e.g. The other side of Dominick Hide.

An alternative story stories based on the assumption that historical events might have unfolded differently. using time travel to alter the past or simply embed history in a universe with a history different from ours. The classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the Civil War and The Man in the High CastlePhilip K. Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II. .

Military Sciences the fiction uses conflicts between national, interplanetary or interstellar armed forces; in which the main characters are usually soldiers. It contains many details of military technology, procedures, rituals and history; and sometimes using parallels to historical conflicts. Examples include Heinlein Starship Troopers and then the novel by Dorsai Gordon Dickson. Prominent SF military authors include David Drake, David Weber, Jerry Pournelle, S. M. Stirling, and Lois McMaster Bujold. Joe Haldeman’s Eternal war , the reaction of the Vietnam era to the WWII-style stories of earlier authors is a critique of the genre. Baen Books cultivates military science fiction authors. TV series belonging to this sub-genre include Battlestar Galactica, Stargate SG-1, and Space: Above and Beyond. There is also the popular Halo video game and the novel series.

Related genres include speculative fiction, fantasy and horror. alternative stories (which may not have any specific scientific or futuristic element), and even literary stories with fantasy elements, such as the works of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth. It is also said that works of magical realism fall within the broad definition of speculative fiction.

Imagination is closely related to science fiction. Many writers, including Robert A. Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Larry Niven, C. J. Cherryh, C. S. Lewis, Jack Vance, and Lois McMaster Bujold, have therefore worked in both genres. Writers such as Anne McCaffrey and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that seem to blur the line between the two related genres with science fiction conventions by routinely programming on fantasy themes, and fantasy authors such as JK Rowling and JRR Tolkien (in the film adaptation) have earned top honors in the field of science fiction, the Hugo Award. Larry Niven The magic is gone stories treat magic as another force of nature subject to the laws of nature that resemble and partially overlap with the laws of physics.

Basically science fiction is the literature of the things that may one day be possible, and fantasy is the literature of the things that are inherently impossible. With magic and mythology among the popular topics. Narratives described as essentially science fiction are often found. but “with fantasy elements”. such narratives are referred to as “science fiction”.

This is a horror movie unnatural and supernatural literature, intended to disturb or frighten the reader, sometimes with graphic violence. “While not a science fiction branch, many of her works contain some science fiction elements. A novel by Mary Shelley Frankenstein, is a fully realized science fiction work in which the production of the monster has a rigorous science fiction basis. Edgar Allan Poe’s work also helped define the genres of science fiction and horror. Today, horror is one of the most popular movie categories.

Modernist works by writers such as Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick and StanisBaw Lem on the border of Science Fiction and the mainstream focused on speculative or existential views on contemporary reality. According to Robert J. Sawyer, “Science fiction and mystery have a lot in common. They both value the intellectual process of solving puzzles and both require the stories to be credible and depend on how things really work. ” Isaac Asimov, Anthony Boucher, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate cryptic elements into their science fiction and vice versa.

Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings of supernatural physical or mental capacity, generally with the desire or need to help the citizens of a selected country or world, using their power to overcome natural or supernatural threats. Many fictional superhero characters have become involved (intentionally or accidentally) in science fiction and facts, including high tech, alien worlds, time travel, and dimensional travel; but the standards of scientific credibility are lower than real science fiction.

The most famous authors of this genre include Stan Lee, Keith RA DeCandido, Diane Duane, Peter David, Len Wein, Marv Wolfman, George RR Martin, Pierce Askegren, Christopher Golden, Dean Wesley Smith, Greg Cox, Nancy Collins, CJ Cherryh, Roger Stern and Elliot S! Maggin.

As a way of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has predecessors back to mythology, although science fiction precursors when literature began to appear from the 13th century (Ibn al-Nafis, Theologus Autodidactus) to the 17th century (the real Cyrano de Bergerac from “Voyage de la Terre à la Lune” and “Des états de la Lune et du Soleil”) and Age of Reason with the development of science itself. Voltaire’s Micromegas was one of the first, together with Jonathan Swift “Gulliver’s travels. After the development of the novel as a literary form in the eighteenth century, the book by Mary Shelley in the early nineteenth century Frankenstein and The last man helped define the form of a science fiction novel]later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about the flight to the moon. More examples emerged in the 19th century. Then, with the advent of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transport, writers such as Jules Verne and H.G. Wells produced a collection of works that became popular with wide social circles. In the late 1800s, Britain used the term “science romance” to describe much of this fiction. This created additional branches, such as the 1884 novel Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott. The term was still used until the beginning of the 20th century to refer to writers such as Olaf Stapledon.

In the early 20th century, cellulose warehouses helped develop a new generation of mostly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories Magazine. In the late 1930s, John W. Campbell became editor Amazing science fiction. A critical mass of new writers has emerged in New York. Called the Futurians, this group included Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, and Judith Merril. Other notable writers of this period include Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and A. E. Van Vogt. Campbell’s tenure at ul Amazing is considered to be the beginning of a golden age of science fiction, marked by hard science fiction stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress. This continued until post-war technological advances such as new warehouses Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside of Campbell’s mode.

In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers such as William S. Burroughs. In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers such as Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas and writing styles, as did a group of writers, mainly in Britain, who became known as the New Wave. In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard science fiction, while Ursula K. Le Guin and others were pioneers of soft science fiction.

In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors such as William Gibson turned away from traditional optimism and support for the advancement of traditional science fiction. Star Wars helped spark a new interest in space opera with a focus on story and characters rather than scientific accuracy. The detailed study of alien life and the complex scientific challenges of C. J. Cherryh have influenced an entire generation of writers.

Emerging topics in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, and an interest in post-Cold War post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson in The Diamond Age explores these topics comprehensively. Lois McMaster Bujold’s novels about Vorkosigan have returned to this character-driven story.

The Next Generation ushered in an avalanche of new SF programming, of which Babylon 5 was one of the most appreciated of the decade. There was also the Star Trek television series. : General concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of technological singularity, popularized in Vernor Vinge’s novel Marooned in Realtime and then undertaken by other authors. TV shows like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and movies like The Lord of the Ring has created a new interest in all speculative genres in film, television, computer games and books. According to Alan Laughlin, the Harry Potter stories were very popular with young readers, increasing literacy levels around the world

While SF criticizes developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technologies. The discussion on this topic took place more in literary and sociological forums than in science.

Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack explores the dialogue between science fiction film and technological imagination. Technology influences how artists portray their fictional themes, but the fictional world turns to science, expanding the imagination. While more prevalent in the early years of science fiction among writers such as Isaac Asimov, Robert A. Heinlein, Frank Walker, and Arthur C. Clarke, new authors such as Michael Crichton are still finding ways to make the currently impossible technologies so close to implementation]

This has also been particularly documented in the field of nanotechnology in an article by Professor José Lopez of the University of Ottawa entitled Bridging the Gaps: Science Fiction in Nanotechnology. Lopez combines both the theoretical premises of science fiction worlds and the action of nanotechnology.

Science fiction brought the primacy of technology as a culture, making it otherwise known as “technoculture”, which in the literature describes the new closeness between the author and technology. From the computer code accompanying the text of Laurie Anderson’s stories from the Nerves Bible to the metaphors of binary computer logic used by Thomas Pynchon in Cry of Flight 49 to the full partnership of computer and authorship, represented by hypertext fiction, many recent literary achievements suggest a paradigm shift between creativity and the telecommunications machine, which now facilitates and mediates interpersonal contacts. It also brought science fiction to life as an experimental literary genre that has been creating fascinating dystopian visions, social allegories, and innovative variations on traditional fantasy forms for more than three decades. representing a new and powerful commitment to technology as a social and creative force.

The possibilities, as well as the dangers of technology, are enormous. Modern technologies can be used by women and others historically deprived of the right to vote as tools to embody and force new social relationships. IN Wild lasers Gerald Vizenor, the cross cheat technician Almost Browne uses first-world technology to produce holographic laser shows that cast the ghosts of the past over the landscapes of the Quidnunc Reserve and urban Detroit. Almost Browne claims to be in a courtroom in a courtroom where he is tried to cause public disorder, while people inspired by him use lasers to revise stories to preserve their memories and create a new wilderness over the highways.

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